Below are some of the primary sources used to develop these interpretations of the Elder Futhark runestaves in the associated pages. When you purchase via one of the affiliate links below, I earn a percentage of the sales, which helps me to maintain and run Sceadugenga.


Crawford, Jackson. Jackson Crawford’s Old Norse Channel. YouTube Series (accessed 2021-2022).

Dickins, Bruce. Runic and heroic poems of the Old Teutonic peoples (1915, public domain). Retrieved 00:12, December 15, 2021, from

McCoy, Daniel. Norse Mythology for Smart People (accessed 2021-2022).

Tyriel. Rune Secrets (accessed 2021-2022).

Wayfarer’s Mark. The Elder Futhark. YouTube series (accessed 2021-2022).

Wikipedia contributors. “Elder Futhark.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 6 Dec. 2021. Web. 15 Dec. 2021.

page updated: 23 dec 2021

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